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The Fly Ash Brick Industry in Bihar

"The Bihar brick industry is currently based on decentralized production activity using energy intensive, resource depleting and highly polluting technologies and production methods with Fixed Chimney Kilns (FCKs) being the predominant firing technology. Fired clay bricks consume around 2-4 million tonnes of coal per year leading to emissions of 4-6 million tonnes of carbon-dioxide (CO ) per year. The increasing emissions of greenhouse gases from the clay brick making industry 2 contribute massively to the climate change concerns. They also emit sulphur dioxide (SO ), nitrogen oxides, and suspended 2 particulate matter (SPM). In order to ensure that the state’s economic growth is not at the cost of environment and public health, it is extremely necessary to take initiatives for promoting cleaner brick production technologies and waste management. The optimal solution is to encourage the production and usage of fly ash bricks. This offers an opportunity for productive utilization of waste while preventing the emission intensity of the unit and providing decent jobs to the local community. " This study provides an overview of the Fly Ash Brick Industry in Bihar, including drivers, barriers, current government initiatives and recommendations.




The Bihar brick industry is currently based on decentralized production activity using energy intensive, resource depleting and highly polluting technologies. This study is based on the theme of ‘resource efficient building materials’ and the aim is to upstream the fly ash brick in Bihar, India. 

Key Takeaways

To uptake fly ash bricks technology as resource efficient building material technology in India and other countries.    This study is focused on up streaming fly ash brick in Bihar. It is made from ash which is a by-product of thermal power plants. Fly ash is waste and dumping of fly ash is a major concern to industries. If we use fly ash brick instead of clay bricks, we can protect the environment from fly ash waste and we can conserve natural resource “clay” as a natural resource.

Project Achievements

The Bihar brick sector has seen an upsurge of fly ash brick production units in the last six years. During our survey in 2013, the numbers of fly ash brick enterprises was 25. A survey was done recently in 2018, with the support of the Bihar State Pollution Control Board. According to this study industries have surged from 25 in 2013 to 145 in 2018. To save top soil, the government is itself promoting fly ash bricks as resource efficient building materials.


The stakeholders involved in the process are “Bihar State Pollution Control Board” and “Department of Environment, Forest & Climate Change, Government of Bihar”. 

Project Outputs

 "1. A favorable policy environment for enhancing the roll out of cleaner brick production technologies in the state.
2. Enterprises have increased from 25 in 2013 to 145 in 2018.
3. Notification issued on 31st of May,2018 by the Department of Building Construction, Government of Bihar on procurement of 100% fly ash bricks in public sector projects.
4. To create a favorable fly ash brick quality environment in Bihar, Quality rating system has been implemented by Development Alternatives for the quality assurance of fly ash bricks.

Replicability of Project
Replicable with similar up streaming of fly ash bricks as building materials in the other states of the country, India as well as other fly ash based countries.

Scalability of Project

Scalable as it is not fully implemented in the state of Bihar. For scalable, It needs at least 5 more years for awareness generation about fly ash bricks technology in consumers and other related stakeholders. 

Three Main Challenges?

1.    Lack of awareness among consumers on the merits of fly ash brick utilisation for construction as  building materials.
2.    Unavailability data comprehensiveness of from the government departments on the actual use of fly ash bricks in Public construction.
3.    Lack of knowledge about the fly ash brick technology amongst entrepreneurs.


Three Main Successes?
1.    Quality rating system in place for the quality assurance of fly ash bricks across 10 districts of Bihar.
2.    Fly ash brick can be up streamed as resource efficient building materials in Bihar.
3.    100% utilisation of fly ash bricks in Department of building Construction of Bihar is mandatory.