"Toronto’s Circular Economy Procurement Implementation Plan and Framework (the Framework) is positioned to become a major tool in creating economic growth, enhancing social prosperity and moving to
Circular procurement & infrastructure
Circular public procurement leverages the purchasing power and large material portfolios of public bodies to drive market demand, stimulate innovation and promote technology and/or service diffusion and serve to overcome certain types of market failure.,  It refers to the process by which public bodies meet their needs while contributing to the closing of energy and material loops, to minimise environmental degradation throughout supply chains. Public procurement also encompasses the circular management of a public body’s asset portfolio and the provision of circular public infrastructure.,  Circular asset management strategies can be utilised to ensure both optimal utilisation and performance of public sector assets throughout their lifecycle as well as establishing optimal end-of-life arrangements by implementing, for example, product-service systems and buy-back agreements. The provision of public infrastructures can directly facilitate the closing of material and energy loops and enable circular activities and investment by business and society at large.
 IPP (Innovation Policy Platform). N.d.. Public procurement for green innovation. The Innovation Policy Platform, OECD & World Bank. Available online via: https://www.innovationpolicyplatform.org/content/public-procurement-green-innovation
 EMF (Ellen MacArthur Foundation). 2015. Delivering the Circular Economy: A Toolkit for Policymakers. Available online via: https://www.ellenmacarthurfoundation.org/assets/downloads/publications/EllenMacArthurFoundation_PolicymakerToolkit.pdf
 European Commission. 2017. Public procurement for a circular economy: Good practice and guidance. Available online via: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/gpp/pdf/Public_procurement_circular_economy_brochure.pdf
 Ngwira, M. & Manase, D. 2016. Public Sector Property Asset Management. John Wiley & Sons, Ldt.
 Quareshi, Z. N.d. The Role of Public Policy in Sustainable Infrastructure. Global Economy and Development, Brookings Institute. Available online via: https://www.brookings.edu/wp-content/uploads/2016/07/public-policy-sustainable-infrastructure-qureshi-1.pdf