FAO’s two studies in 2011 state that in low-income countries poor cooling and storage facilities and lack of sufficient infrastructure, adequate roads could be solved with investment from the government or private sector. Also with market cooperatives reduction in unsanitary market stores could be visible. Food could also be lost due to ‘premature harvesting’, as not just the infrastructure is lacking money, but farmers stress of ‘food deficiency’ and harvest produce earlier to generate income, in this sense food loss is terms of ‘nutritional and economic value’ (p.10). To avoid such issue, small farmer’s plantations could be diversified in order to receive financial aid from agricultural financial institutions.
In medium/ high-income countries consumers expect to have a broad variety of food in supermarkets with constantly stocked shelves, while many produce expire before purchase, which could be drastically reduced by optimizing distribution channels to avoid overproduction. Apparently, consumers’ attitude in rich countries allows them the luxury to waste food, but through education and raising awareness in educational institutions or NGO initiatives could shift their mindset.